Jurnal Peternakan Indonesia (JPI) diterbitkan oleh Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Andalas, sebagai media untuk mempublikasikan hasil penelitian, pengkajian dan pendalaman literatur tentang ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi di bidang peternakan dan kehewanan. JPI diterbitkan untuk menyempurnakan dan melanjutkan Jurnal Peternakan dan Lingkungan (JPL) yang telah ada semenjak bulan Oktober 1994.

JPI diterbitkan tiga kali dalam setahun pada bulan Februari, Juni dan Oktober. Naskah yang diterima untuk layak dipublikasikan di JPI merupakan hasil penelitian, analisis kebijakan atau gagasan dengan topik yang aktual di bidang peternakan yang ditekankan pada kontribusi dalam kemajuan bidang peternakan, serta sesuai dengan aturan penulisan.

Senin, 06 Februari 2012

Jurnal Peternakan Indonesia, Vol. 13 (2) Juni 2011.

1.                  Analisis Dampak PenerapanMilk District Model NestleTerhadap Aksesibilitas

Livelihood AssetsPeternak Sapi Perah di Jawa Timur

(Studi pada Empat Wilayah Penampungan Susu Segar)
Analysis the Impacts of Application of Milk Dictrict Model Nestle for Livelihood Assets Accessibilities of Dairy Farmers in the Province of East Java

B.A. Nugroho dan P.S. Winarto

Fakultas PeternakanUniversitas Brawijaya, Malang

Jl. Veteran Malang, 65145. Jawa Timur

East Java province is one of the development centre of dairy farming in Indonesia. In 2008, dairy farming activities in East Java constitue is about 88,148 dairy farmers, 29 dairy cooperatives, 130,000 dairy cows, and produces 600,000 litres freshmilk per day, from that amount 410,000 litres marketed to PT. Nestle. This study was conducted to analysis macro impact of milk district model Nestle on 1) labor absorption, natural resources conservation, and regional economic growth and 2) on capital assets accessibility of dairy farmers. Analysis methods that we used in this study were 1) field survey using questionnaire; 2) collecting secondary data; 3) in depth interview using checklist; and 4) measuring accesssibility on livelihood assets (human, natural, physics, social and financial accesss). Areas of study located on three regencies in East Java Province: Malang, Blitar and Kediri, 97 smallscale dairy farmers were surveyed. The impacts of milk district model on livelihood assets accessibilities remain significants especially on financial and social capitals. This means that dairy farmers accesssibilities on financial sources were improved because it provide regular source of income, something the dairy farmers would not receive from their seasonal crops. Accessibility level of social capital were improved too, this means that smallscale dairy farming activities capables to create many collective activities on the rural communities based on dairy farming issues through variety efforts on Artificial Insemination (AI), feeding process, freshmilk handling, freshmilk collecting, forages management, breeding, animal healthcares, etc. Accessibility level on human, physical and natural capitals remainds lower than social and financial capitals because there are a lack of human capital (knowledge, skills, creativity and adaptive strategy); a lack of physical capital (rural infrastructures); and natural capital (clean water availability).

Keywords:livelihood assets, milk district model, smallscale dairy farming

2.Characteristic of the Three Pig Keeping Systems on Performance
of Small-Scale Pig Farmers at Manokwari, West Papua

D.A. Iyai dan S.Y. Randa
Department of Animal Production
Faculty of Animal Sciences Fisheries and Marine Sciences
The State University of Papua. Jl. Gunung Salju, Amban
Manokwari - Papua Barat. Indonesia. 98314

Pig keeping systems consisted of extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems were studied to seek its performances on pigs and small-scale pig farmers. From six districts and 15 villages, 50 respondents were chosen. Characteristic of farmers and pig keeping systems were studied. Animal number used were 355 tails for measuring pig variables consisted of body weight, reproduction and herd size. Labor and experience were varied among the three pig keeping systems (P<0.05). Animal herd, farrowing rate, suckling piglet number and its body weight, weaned body weight and adult body weight were differ significantly (P<0.05) particularly on semi-penned pig keeping. Pig production efficiency and pig production productivity used as qualitative characteristic were not drawing animal efficiency and producivity.
Keywords: pig keeping system, performance, pig production efficiency, pig production productivity

3.Evaluasi Total Koloni Bakteri dan Cita Rasa Telur Asin dengan Perlakuan Perendaman Ekstrak Kulit Bawang (Allium ascalonicum)

The Evaluation of Colony Bacteria and Organoleptic of Salted Duck Eggs Which Soaked
in Onion Skin (Allium ascalonicum)

D. Novia, I. Juliyarsi, dan P. Andalusia

Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Andalas
Kampus Unand Limau Manis Padang, 25163

Onion skin is a waste of agricultural products rich with tannin content. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of soaking salted eggs with the extraction  of onion skin (Allium ascalonicum) for water content, pH, bacteria colony, and organoleptic of salted eggs .  200 grains of Anas javanicus eggs duck, 5000 g of brick powder, 1000 g of salt and 2800 g of onion skin were used in this experiment. The experiment was designed in a randomized block design (RBD) with 5 different treatments of soaking salted eggs time in onion extraction, and four different groups of duck eggs as replicates. The treatments of soaking salted eggs in extraction of union skin were control (K); soaking one day (1H); immersion for three days (3H); immersion for 5 days (5H); immersion for 7 days (7H). Variables measured were water content, pH, bacteria colony, and organoleptic of salted eggs product. The results showed that there was no effect of the time of soaking on water content and pH of salted duck egg, while it affect the  total bacteria colony  and organoleptic significantly. It was concluded that one  day of immersion is the best immersion for making salted eggs.

Keywords: salted egg, onion skin, organoleptic and bacterial colony forming

4. Production Technology and Efficiency of Farmer’s Dairy Entreprises
 (A Case Study in the Regency of Bogor, Boyolali, and Pasuruan)

Fuah, A.M1., D. J. Setyono1., B. P. Purwanto1 and A. A. Fuah2

1Departemen Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Peternakan,
Fakultas Peternakan Institut Pertanian Bogor
Jl. Agatis Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor, 16680
2Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan, Deptan

During for the past 10 years, milk production in Indonesia has been on the increase of approximately 70% (FAO, 2002), but it can only meet 30% of domestic needs for milk. The remaining 70% is still imported, mostly from  Australia and New Zealand. Milk production in Indonesia is expected to increase to achieve an average of 15-20 liters/cow/day.  It is necessary to analyze dairy enterprises to assess its feasibility. The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate production technology of small holder dairy farm in  West Java, Central Java and East Java;  (2) to analyze the efficiency of the existing dairy farming. Twenty farmers from each localities with ownership less than or equal to 10 cows, consisted of small (<4 cows), medium (4-6 cows), and large (> 6 cows) scales were interviewed on their  businesses. Economic analysis on net profit indicated by BC-Ratio, and IRR values. The dairy farming in West Java, Central Java and East Java was carried out traditionally without technological diversification, the main products were pasteurised fresh milk. Milk production was low (10 liters/cow/day). Net income of Rp 1,521,820/m/farmers, BC-Ratio 1.32,  and IRR  17% indicated a low result. Improving cows ownership should be in line with the improved management and technology application.

Keywords: Milk production, Efficiency, Small holder, Dairy farm.

Peternakan Ayam Masa Depan


M. H. Abbas
Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Andalas
Kampus Unand Limau Manis Padang, 25163


         In response to the failure of the Green Revolution which led to leveling off land productivity, damage the environment, and income of farmers who did not turn up, then introduction the sustainable agriculture development, namely how to manage farms to maintain long-term stability of ecology, biodiversity and improving local wisdom through integrated farming, biotechnology , holistic management, organic farming, animal husbandry based on the principles of animal welfare, food safety and other organics.
The insistence of global issues concerning animal walfare, back to nature, low fat, low cholesterol, presence of residual effects, antibiotics, hormones and other additives in food, can direct our movement towards organic poultry, especially with the utilization of native chicken, because potential indigenous chicken and maintenance system is suitable for conversion into the provision of organic chicken production in accordance to environmental sustainability without using feed ingredients which are modified gene.
Facing the era of organic poultry, local chicken can be relied upon by Indonesia in the future because it has many advantages; great potential and wide spread among the farmers, have the power of adaptation to local environments is high, tolerant of low quality feed, more tolerant to disease, however; productivity is still low, there is no adequate system poultry breeding. Through an integrated farming organic poultry feed ingredients in the environment can take advantage of farmers, non-conventional waste; earthworms, slugs, snails, waste oil, cattle (rumen contents), forestry, and other nutritious enough.
Required number of strategies for the development of local and broiler chickens on a small scale as organic poultry in the future, namely; immediately apply Permentan No. 49/2006 regarding poultry breeding, empowerment of farmers will add value compared to traditional organic poultry, lack of regulation and control of organic poultry, there is need for an organic chicken farmer associations as container consultancy, mentoring, education, technological innovation, joint marketing, and protecting the interests of members , as well as empowerment and awareness by consumers willing to pay more to the advantage of organic chicken.
Key words; sustainable livestock farming, organic food, integrated farming, organic poultry.

6. Pendugaan Bobot Karkas, Persentase Karkas dan Tebal Lemak Punggung
Babi Duroc Jantan Berdasarkan Umur Ternak

The Prediction of Carcass Weight, Percentage of Carcass, and Back Fat Thickness of
 Male Duroc Pig Based on Their Age

S.N. Aritonang, J. Pinem, dan S. Tarigan

Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Andalas
Kampus Unand Limau Manis Padang, 25163

The research for predicting of carcass weight, percentage of carcass  and back fat thickness of male Duroc pig based on their age was done on one hundred and twenty male Duroc pigs.  The pigs were divided into four different groups of their aged: A (240-270 days), B (271-300 days), C (301-330 days) and D (331-360 days). Survey  method was done by using purposive quota sampling in Mabar Slaugther House, Medan. The variables observed were carcass weight, percentage of carcass, and back fat thickness of male Duroc pig. The prediction of variables which correlated with their aged were measured by using regression analysis. The result indicated that there was closely relation between animal age with carcass weight, percentage of carcass, and back fat thickness of male Duroc pig (P<0.01). The correlation coefficients were 0.989; 0.891 and 0.957 respectly.

Keywords: Duroc pig, carcass percentage, back fat thickness

7. Penggunaan Ampas Sagu Ampas Tahu Fermentasi dengan Monascus purpureus
dalam Ransum Terhadap Performa  Puyuh Petelur

The Utilization of Combination of Sago Rotb-Tofu Waste Fermented by Monascus purpureus
in Egg Quail Ration On Their Egg Performance

S.A. Latif, Nuraini, Mirzah, dan A. Djulardi

Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Andalas
Kampus Unand Limau Manis Padang. 25163

The aim of this research is to know the effect of utilization of combination sago rotb waste and tofu waste fermented by Monascus purpureus in egg quail (Coturnix-coturnix japonica) ration on their egg performance. About 200 quails were used in completely randomized design with 4 treatments (0.5%; 10%  and 15%) of different level of  combination sago rotb waste and tofu waste fermented in ration, and each treatment are replicated  for 5 times. Ration  are arranged iso protein (20%) and iso calory (2,800 kcal/kg). The parameters are: egg production, egg weigth and body weight. The result showed that the utilization of combination of sago rotb and tofu waste fermented by Monascus purpureus was not affected egg quail performance significantly (P>0.05). Inconclusion, the utilization of combination sago rotb waste and tofu waste fermented by Monascus purpureus until 15% in quail ration increased egg production with quail day scoring 80%, egg weight is 9.70 g/egg, and body weight is 56.12 g/quail.

Keywords: Monascus purpureus, egg production, egg weight and body weight

8. Analisis Tingkat Perkembangan Kawasan Agropolitan Desa Perpat
Kabupaten Belitung Berbasis Komoditas Unggulan Ternak Sapi Potong

Analysis of Area Development of Perpat Agropolitan Village, District of Belitung
Based on Beef Cattle Commodities

Suyitman1 dan S.H. Sutjahjo2

1Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Andalas, Kampus Limau Manis Padang, 25163
2Fakultas Pertanian Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor

This study aims to analyze the level of area development of Perpat Agropolitan Village - District of Belitung-Province of Bangka Belitung based on beef cattle commodity in terms of 5 (five) dimensions agropolitan level of area development, namely: the dimensions of agribusiness, agro-industry, marketing, infrastructure and superstructure. This study use a method of analysis of Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) called Rap-agrop and the results are expressed in index form and the status of sustainability. The result of MDS analysis shows the level of development area of Perpat agropolitan village, based on beef cattle farm commodities, was still low, ie: including  Pre Regions Agropolitan. This region has an index value of Rap-agrop dimensional good enough for agribusiness (50.57%), infrastructure (64.49%), and the superstructure (57.23%), while the dimensions of agro-industries (6.52%) and marketing (9.98%) had an index value that is poorly. The key factors that strongly affected the level of development of the region agropolitan Perpat-Belitung, namely: 1) the production of beef cattle and 2) the production of processed meat. To enhance the development of this area is to do a thorough improvement of all attributes that are sensitive, so that all dimensions in the region agropolitan Perpat become enhanced and more sustainable. 

Keywords: agropolitan, beef cattle, sustainability index, Belitung district

9. Pengaruh Waktu Pelapisan Spermatozoa Sapi Pada Media TALP yang Disuplementasi bovine serum albumin (BSA) Terhadap Jenis Kelamin Embrio In vitro

The Influence of Time Veneering Cow of Spermatozoa in Media of TALP which Supplementazion by Bovine Serum of Albumin (BSA) to Gender
Embryo of In vitro

T. Afriani, Z. Udin, Jaswandi, dan S. Asmairicen

Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Andalas
Kampus Unand Limau Manis Padang, 25153


This research aim  to know the influence of  depth veneering time of spermatozoa at media of TALP which was supplemented  by 4% BSA to embryo gender in in- vitro and to get the time dissociation of spermatozoa which have the best chromosome Y.  This research represent attempt of exsperiment in RBT by 4 time veneering of spermatozoa as treatment,  times intake of semen of epididymis to groups. Variables measure are: 1). mortality of spermatozoa, 2). number of in vitro fertilzation, 3. masculine gender embryo ratio. Result shown,  the veneering of cow spermatozoa during 90 minute in media of TALP which was supplemented by  4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) can dissociate spermatozoa which have chromosome Y with percentage of highest male sex (90.00±24.49), and highest percentage of mortality and fertility were  obtained at veneering during 60 minute with scoring 73.33 ± 5.16 and 53.92±18.79 respectively 

Keywords:bovine serum albumin (BSA), veneering, spermatozoa, embryo

10. Analisis Konsumsi Daging Sapi Di Provinsi Papua Barat

Consumption Analysis of Beef in West Papua Province

T.W. Widayati1, S. Widodo2, Masyhuri2, dan A. Suryantini2

1Fakultas Peternakan Perikanan dan Kelautan Universitas Negeri Papua
Jl. Gunung Salju, Amban. Manokwari.
2Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur. Yogyakarta, 55281

The study aims to determine the level of beef consumption and the factors that influence the consumption of beef in West Papua. The data used in this study are monthly time series data of BPS, sourced from all districts in the province of West Papua from 1990 to 2004. Data were analyzed by using multiple linear regression equation by Ordinary Least Square method. The results showed that the average beef consumption per capita per year for people of West Papua is 0.79 kg. The increasing of population and income per capita affected the increasing of beef consumption significantly. Increasing the price of chicken meat, pork prices and the price of rice has significant effect of reducing domestic consumption of beef. Increasing the price of  tuna, squid and sweet potatoes have a significant effect in increasing of the domestic consumption of beef.

Keywords: beef consumption, time series, Ordinary Least Square

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